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The majority of the remaining Jews left for the United States, Israel and Germany in the decades immediately prior and after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Frank Fox came to the United States from his native Poland in 1937.
To Professor Walther Kirchner who read an earlier version of the manuscript and who in his long and distinguished career as a teacher never ceased to await results of his patient tutelage, I offer this study as a recompense, albeit a partial one.
To my daughter Nina, who has always asked me to find subjects other than massacres to write about, I can only say that historians describe such events so that there may be a future without them.
Rafał Olbiński, one of the premier illustrators of our times, is an artist whose style uniquely combines realism and surrealism.
Resident in New York since his arrival from Poland in 1981, he has been the recipient of over a hundred awards.
Finally, I dedicate this work to the many who died a cruel and lonely death in that "inhuman land." Notes 1.While Muscovy stayed under Mongol control for over a hundred years, it absorbed much Mongol vocabulary, thus separating modern Russian from modern Belarusian and Ukrainian.Lithuania's unification with Poland into the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth further added a Polonization factor to most of Ruthenian lands.Originally united with Belarus and Muscovy under the state of Kievan Rus', a schism took place after the Mongol invasion, as the Muscovite lands stayed under Mongol/Tatar rule for another century and Ruthenian (Ukrainian/Belarusian) lands were taken over by the ascendant Duchy of Lithuania, as it helped Ruthenians drive out the Mongol invaders.During this time a language separate from Old East Slavic evolved on the territory of the progenitor Russian principality Muscovy, while a Ruthenian language continued evolving on the territory of central Kievan Rus' (Ukraine and Belarus), whose people were known as the Ruthenians.